Referring to the rules about dealers that had aroused Mr. Baldwin’s interest, they added: “The fixed and known nature of the dealer’s strategy is vital in reducing the mathematical and computational problems in analyzing blackjack to manageable proportions.”
A year later, the group expanded the article into a book, “Playing Blackjack to Win: A New Strategy for the Game of 21,” with a foreword written by Charles Van Doren, a friend of Mr. Baldwin’s who had won $129,000 on the television quiz show “Twenty-One,” which was based on blackjack. Mr. Van Doren would later admit that the show was rigged and that he had received questions and answers in advance.
In the foreword, Mr. Van Doren wrote: “I only hope the dealers in Las Vegas don’t start changing the rules to cope with the new crop of blackjack players descending on them with copies of ‘Playing Blackjack to Win’ sticking out of their pockets.”
The book did not sell well but was reissued in 2008, with help from Mr. Snyder, the blackjack author.
In addition to his daughter, Deborah, Mr. Baldwin is survived by three other daughters, Lauren and Geraldine Baldwin and Carole Ann Geronimo; 12 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. His wife, Patricia (Devine) Baldwin, died in 1986; his daughter Susan died in 1998, and his son, Roger Jr., died in 2017.
Mr. Baldwin did not profit much from his blackjack work and did not become a Las Vegas habitué. Rather, he was a systems administrator for Union Carbide, Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island and the City of New York.
But his group’s contribution to gambling did not go unnoticed.
In 2008, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Cantey, Mr. McDermott and Mr. Maisel were inducted into the Blackjack Hall of Fame.
At the time, Mr. Baldwin admitted that he had paid little attention to blackjack in decades. He told The Tech, the campus newspaper of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, that his knowledge of the game had “ended with the first edition of ‘Beat the Dealer.’”